Q&A Database:
Training

Every week on the podcast, Greg Nuckols and Eric Trexler discuss recent research and answer listeners’ questions about anything and everything related to training, nutrition, science, and life in general.

Here, we’ve compiled all of the training topics discussed and questions answered on the podcast along with time-stamped links so you can quickly jump around and find the content you’re most interested in.

You should also subscribe on Apple PodcastsGoogle PodcastsStitcher, or wherever you get your podcasts to make sure you’re getting new episodes and answers to your questions every week.

All training questions

Programming and Exercise Selection

I’m on a 2-week vacation. How bad could fat gain/muscle loss be? 

Episode 66: Refeeds, Diet Breaks, Fructose, and Sodium


If there is to be another major breakthrough in powerlifting training, which area of training do you see it being? 

Episode 66: Refeeds, Diet Breaks, Fructose, and Sodium


SBS Article Discussion: Reverse Nordic curls 

Episode 67: Calorie Restriction, Protein Restriction, App Updates


Research Roundup: Blood flow restricted training 

Episode 63: Metabolic Rate, Blood Flow Restricted Training, and Turkesterone


If you aren’t primarily focused on increasing 1RM, should you still arch your back while bench pressing? 

Bonus Live Q&A: Energy Constraint Model, Training Volume, Creatine Kinase Levels, and More


Is training volume the main driver for hypertrophy? 

Bonus Live Q&A: Energy Constraint Model, Training Volume, Creatine Kinase Levels, and More


Research Review: Training frequency for strength gains

Studies reviewed: 1, 2

Episode 62: Energy Deficiency, Training Frequency, and Beginner Gains


How should older folks train if their goal is maintaining/improving daily functioning and mitigating bone/muscle loss?

Episode 61: Responders, Non-Responders, and Fish Oil


Better for hypertrophy: straight sets with final set to failure, or target RPE with variable rep number?

Episode 60: Capsaicin, Multivitamins, and Time Off


Best tendon strengthening protocol?

Episode 59: Beta-Alanine, Training Frequency, and Strength for Hypertrophy


What’s the most ludicrous programming or workout you’ve ever heard of or seen with your own eyes?

Episode 59: Beta-Alanine, Training Frequency, and Strength for Hypertrophy


Research Roundup: Effects of strength on hypertrophy potential

Study link
Episode 59: Beta-Alanine, Training Frequency, and Strength for Hypertrophy


Research Roundup: Squat sticking point

Study link
Episode 59: Beta-Alanine, Training Frequency, and Strength for Hypertrophy


Research Roundup: Training frequency

Study link
Episode 59: Beta-Alanine, Training Frequency, and Strength for Hypertrophy


How hard should you train?

Episode 58: Q&A Extravaganza


How do you periodize bodybuilding training?

Episode 58: Q&A Extravaganza


Is training for strength and hypertrophy simultaneously really useless? 

Episode 57: Caffeinated Naps, Intuitive Eating, and Q&A Catch-Up


Do the triceps become the prime movers when you get near maximal bench press loads? 

Episode 57: Caffeinated Naps, Intuitive Eating, and Q&A Catch-Up


Should volume, intensity, and/or frequency of training be titrated based on whether one is cutting or bulking?

Episode 55: BMI, Plant-Based Protein, Stretching, and Mouthguards


Research Review: Ischemic Preconditioning

Relevant studies: 1, 2, 3, 4

Episode 54: P-Ratios, Ischemic Preconditioning, and Q&A


Research Roundup – Strength blocks to enhance hypertrophy

Study discussed: Is stronger better? Influence of a strength phase followed by a hypertrophy phase on muscular adaptations in resistance-trained men.

Episode 53: Protein, Fish Oil, Glycogen, and What Limits Muscle Growth


Research Roundup – Preceding a Hypertrophy Phase with a Strength Phase

Article discussed: Is stronger better? Influence of a strength phase followed by a hypertrophy phase on muscular adaptations in resistance-trained men.

Episode 52: Protein, Lactate, and Strength Phases to Boost Hypertrophy


How can we re-sensitize our muscles to hypertrophy? 

Episode 50: Q&A: Cortisol, Hydration, Anti-Nutrients, and Deadlift Recovery


Why is deadlifting considered more fatiguing than squatting? 

Episode 50: Q&A: Cortisol, Hydration, Anti-Nutrients, and Deadlift Recovery


A Progression Framework for Hypertrophy

Episode 51: 2020’s Most Notable Research (with guests Eric Helms and Mike Zourdos)


Is flywheel training good for hypertrophy?

Episode 48: Breakfast, Glycine, Muscle Knots, and Trigger Points


Effects of Horizontal and Incline Bench Press on Neuromuscular Adaptations in Untrained Young Men

Study Reviewed

Episode 47 – Bench Angles, Appetitive Traits, and Mesocycle Progression


How to progress load throughout a mesocycle

Episode 47 – Bench Angles, Appetitive Traits, and Mesocycle Progression


How should we approach kids/adolescents and resistance training? How young is too young? Are there additional safety concerns?

Study reviewed

Episode 46: Season Finale: Tons of New Meta-Analyses and Q&A Catch-Up


Can I spread my training throughout the entire day instead of doing everything within a 60-90 minute “workout” period?

Episode 46: Season Finale: Tons of New Meta-Analyses and Q&A Catch-Up


High-frequency training (with Jeff Nippard)

Jeff’s video

Interview with Jeff Nippard: On genetic limits, FFMI, training, and nutrition


What’s the latest on strength and isometrics? Given gym closures and my limited home equipment, I’m thinking of using isometrics to help maintain strength on the squat, bench, and deadlift.

Study referenced

Q&A: Training frequency, reducing caloric intake on rest days, and isometric training


I have been squatting 2 or 3 times a week for the last year. Is it reasonable to expect to continue progressing while only squatting once a week? How should I structure it to get the most out of it?

Q&A: Training frequency, reducing caloric intake on rest days, and isometric training


Effect of acute antagonist static stretching on upper-body agonist power

Study

Episode 37: Heart Rate Variability, Antagonist Stretching, and Chrononutrition


Are programs limited by our natural tendency to think in weeks? Could it be beneficial to have microcycles that last, for example, 5 days or 9 days?.

Episode 37: Heart Rate Variability, Antagonist Stretching, and Chrononutrition


Home-based workouts with no (or minimal) equipment.

Episode 38: Immune Function, Home-Based Workouts, Fat Burners, and Lifting with Long Limbs


Should long-limbed lifters train differently than lifters with more typical proportions? Does this advice change if the focus is strength versus hypertrophy?

Episode 38: Immune Function, Home-Based Workouts, Fat Burners, and Lifting with Long Limbs


Is there enough evidence to justify modifying training to include some bench pressing with a particularly long range of motion? For example, adding in some bench pressing with a flatter back arch and narrower grip?

Episode 38: Immune Function, Home-Based Workouts, Fat Burners, and Lifting with Long Limbs


What is Greg’s stance on the conjugate method for raw lifters? How would he adjust it, if necessary, for a raw lifter?

Episode 36: Antioxidants, Injury Risk Factors, and the Conjugate Method


Research Roundup – Non-failure training for strength

Study

Episode 35: Metabolic Rate, Artificial Sweeteners, Electromyography, and Non-Failure Training


When combining unilateral and bilateral training in the same session, is it more advantageous to do unilateral or bilateral first?

Episode 35: Metabolic Rate, Artificial Sweeteners, Electromyography, and Non-Failure Training


Coach’s Corner – Programming your training during weight loss

Episode 33: Doping, Collagen, Goals, and Hyperplasia


What do you think about Brian Minor’s theory that being able to lift more is a result of hypertrophy, rather than hypertrophy being a result of lifting heavier?

Episode 33: Doping, Collagen, Goals, and Hyperplasia


RPE (rating of perceived exertion) and RIR (repetitions in reserve) have become increasingly popular training concepts in recent years. Is this a double-edged sword? Are people using them in ways you didn’t foresee, or misusing them in ways that you find frustrating? (with Mike Tuchscherer)

Episode 32: Year in Review, Effective Reps and Antioxidants Revisited, Behavior Change, and Mike Tuchscherer


Hot Off the Presses: Effective Reps

Episode 32: Year in Review, Effective Reps and Antioxidants Revisited, Behavior Change, and Mike Tuchscherer


Is there any reason to believe that changing exercises circumvents the diminishing returns observed with completing several sets of the same exercise?

Study referenced:1

Episode 29: Q&A: High Protein Diets, Hardgainers, Exercise Variety, and Bone Adaptations


Are machines better or worse than free weights for hypertrophy?

Study referenced:1

Episode 29: Q&A: High Protein Diets, Hardgainers, Exercise Variety, and Bone Adaptations


We know that bone mineral density improves with weight training. Is there any reason to believe that purposefully improving bone mass could be a way to improve muscle mass and strength? Is it even possible to prioritize bone mass accretion in this manner?

Study referenced:1

Episode 29: Q&A: High Protein Diets, Hardgainers, Exercise Variety, and Bone Adaptations


Do you think most bodybuilders would benefit from adopting certain aspects of powerlifting training? (With Ben Pollack)

Episode 28: Glycogen Loading, Lower Back Pain, PowerBuilding, & Physical Culture with Ben Pollack


Do you think most powerlifters would benefit from adopting certain aspects of bodybuilding training? (With Ben Pollack)

Episode 28: Glycogen Loading, Lower Back Pain, PowerBuilding, & Physical Culture with Ben Pollack


As someone who has a foot in both communities, what are things that bodybuilders don’t understand about powerlifting? What are things that powerlifters don’t understand about bodybuilders? (With Ben Pollack)

Episode 28: Glycogen Loading, Lower Back Pain, PowerBuilding, & Physical Culture with Ben Pollack


How do you generally set up a powerbuilding program? How does it change as short-term focus shifts from one sport to the other? (With Ben Pollack)

Episode 28: Glycogen Loading, Lower Back Pain, PowerBuilding, & Physical Culture with Ben Pollack


How do you ease into a high volume, hypertrophy-focused mesocycle after a powerlifting meet without losing your strength gains?

Episode 27: Q&A: Bands, Chains, Useful Supplements, and Tweaking Your Program


How do you tweak a lifting program to break through plateaus and ensure continued progress?

Episode 27: Q&A: Bands, Chains, Useful Supplements, and Tweaking Your Program


What’s your take on accommodating resistance for absolute strength?

Episode 27: Q&A: Bands, Chains, Useful Supplements, and Tweaking Your Program


What are the technique requirements in powerlifting versus strongman?

Episode 26: Protein, Fiber, Phototherapy, and Intro to Strongman with James Deffinbaugh


How do you balance general strength training versus event training in strongman?

Episode 26: Protein, Fiber, Phototherapy, and Intro to Strongman with James Deffinbaugh


Most powerlifters and bodybuilders think in terms of sets and reps. How do you program for events like carries and holds?

Episode 26: Protein, Fiber, Phototherapy, and Intro to Strongman with James Deffinbaugh


In a good powerlifting program, how much time or volume should be spent on hypertrophy work, and how should this change based on training experience and in-season versus off-season training?

Episode 25: Q&A: Rest Periods, Deadlifts, Bulking, and Hypertrophy for Powerlifters


I want to look jacked. How do I know if I am strong enough to be messing with bodybuilding-style training and accessory work? Should I just be focused on getting stronger until my main lifts are more competitive?

Episode 25: Q&A: Rest Periods, Deadlifts, Bulking, and Hypertrophy for Powerlifters


How do Greg and Eric approach deloads? What do deloads look like? How often do we do them? Why do we do them?

Episode 22: Red Meat, Deloads, and Pain with Dr. Michael Ray


Do either of you have any recommendations for someone preparing for their first powerlifting meet?

Episode 21: Q&A: BCAAs, Mini-Cuts, Sex Differences, and First Meet Tips


I have two powerlifting meets, separated four weeks apart. How do I train to be peaked for both of them?

Episode 19: Q&A: Fasted Training, Training Frequency, and How Much Research is Enough?


What are the best exercises for increasing quadriceps size and strength to help with squatting?

Episode 21: Q&A: BCAAs, Mini-Cuts, Sex Differences, and First Meet Tips


Which training approach is preferable for strength: daily undulating periodization (DUP) within blocks, or high-frequency Norwegian-style training?

Episode 19: Q&A: Fasted Training, Training Frequency, and How Much Research is Enough?


What do the data say about training frequency for strength development?

Episode 19: Q&A: Fasted Training, Training Frequency, and How Much Research is Enough?


What exercise would you use for mechanical tension/overload for the chest when not doing the bench press?

Episode 19: Q&A: Fasted Training, Training Frequency, and How Much Research is Enough?


Do weighted thrusts help squats much?

Episode 19: Q&A: Fasted Training, Training Frequency, and How Much Research is Enough?


In terms of hypertrophy, how do routines with sets of 20-30 repetitions differ in comparison to a similar volume of sets in the 8-12 rep range?

Episode 17: Q&A: Dreamer Bulks, Concurrent Training, Recovery Modalities, and Valuing Research


Do you have to squat to reach your ultimate deadlift potential?

Episode 15: Q&A: Keto, Rapid Fat Loss, Deadlifts, and Faulty Movement Patterns


What exercises would you base a routine around for non-powerlifters?

Episode 15: Q&A: Keto, Rapid Fat Loss, Deadlifts, and Faulty Movement Patterns


Do you still believe that planks increase hip mobility?

Episode 15: Q&A: Keto, Rapid Fat Loss, Deadlifts, and Faulty Movement Patterns


What is the best resource for someone looking for corrective exercises for their particular faulty movement pattern?

Episode 15: Q&A: Keto, Rapid Fat Loss, Deadlifts, and Faulty Movement Patterns


What is the best way to calculate volume for hypertrophy training?

Episode 13: Q&A: Warming Up, Calculating Volume, Assessing Fatigue, and Creatine Non-Responders


How important are warm-ups, and what constitutes an effective warm-up? What are some common misconceptions about warm-ups?

Episode 13: Q&A: Warming Up, Calculating Volume, Assessing Fatigue, and Creatine Non-Responders


Is it beneficial to include incline chest exercises in your program?

Episode 13: Q&A: Warming Up, Calculating Volume, Assessing Fatigue, and Creatine Non-Responders


How is the concept of functional overreaching applicable in a hypertrophy training block and how often would you advise to use this technique? How would you best reap the benefits of supercompensation following a successful overreaching period?

Episode 13: Q&A: Warming Up, Calculating Volume, Assessing Fatigue, and Creatine Non-Responders


What is the most pragmatic and valid way to objectively measure fatigue?

Episode 13: Q&A: Warming Up, Calculating Volume, Assessing Fatigue, and Creatine Non-Responders


Is there any benefit of adding electromyostimulation (EMS) to your training for strength or hypertrophy? If so, how should it be used?

Relevant studies: 1, 2

Episode 11: Q&A: Lifting Shoes, Alcohol, and Over/Underrated Exercises


How do I prevent my traps from getting too big?

Episode 11: Q&A: Lifting Shoes, Alcohol, and Over/Underrated Exercises


Can we train to intentionally change the fiber type of a muscle?

Episode 11: Q&A: Lifting Shoes, Alcohol, and Over/Underrated Exercises


Which exercises are overrated? Which exercises are underrated?

Episode 11: Q&A: Lifting Shoes, Alcohol, and Over/Underrated Exercises


For the folks with anterior pelvic tilt, what are some tips for maintaining a neutral pelvis while squatting and deadlifting?

Episode 9: Q&A: Hormonal Contraceptives, Rates of Weight Loss/Weight Gain, Timeline of Training Adaptations


Greg has previously talked about turning a good hypertrophy program into a good strength program by adding some singles. Practically speaking, how do you implement this strategy?

Episode 9: Q&A: Hormonal Contraceptives, Rates of Weight Loss/Weight Gain, Timeline of Training Adaptations


Does volume or intensity drive strength gains?

Episode 7: Q&A: CBD, Junk Volume, Eccentric Training, and Building a Following in Fitness


Is ‘junk volume’ a real thing?

Episode 7: Q&A: CBD, Junk Volume, Eccentric Training, and Building a Following in Fitness


Is there any carry over or need to develop strength in the 1-5 rep range in order for that strength to be carried over into the 8-12 rep range for hypertrophy promotion?

Meta-analysis of high load vs. low-load training; similar hypertrophy in spite of different strength gains. Also worth noting that the theory behind reverse linear periodization (starting with low volume/high intensity and progressing to high volume/lower intensity) is that early strength gains will help lead to more hypertrophy, but that’s never panned out in the research (one example here).

Episode 5: Q&A: Dropping Weight, Building Strength to Promote Hypertrophy, and Training Around Pain


When in a caloric deficit, should you reduce training volume, or training intensity?

Localized depletion of stored glycogen.

Episode 5: Q&A: Dropping Weight, Building Strength to Promote Hypertrophy, and Training Around Pain


How should you train for explosive activities, such as parkour?

Individualized programming for people with force vs. velocity deficits.

Episode 5: Q&A: Dropping Weight, Building Strength to Promote Hypertrophy, and Training Around Pain


Should you change the way you train as you approach the age of 40 (and beyond)? How and why do performance and recovery change as we age?

Episode 3: Q&A: Beltless Training, Leucine, and the Health Benefits of Strength


What does the research say about blood flow restriction training?

Episode 1: Creatine, Genetics, and Dr. Peter Fitschen


What are some different strategies for peaking for a bodybuilding competition?

Episode 1: Creatine, Genetics, and Dr. Peter Fitschen


How hard is it to transition from raw to equipped powerlifting? How long does it take to learn to use the equipment effectively and refine your technique?

Episode 6: Caffeine and Health, Sex-Based Caffeine Differences, and IPF World Champion Natalie Hanson


Which muscle groups are really targeted by the back squat?

Episode 8: Drug Testing, New Supplement Research, Squat Science, and Dr. Eric Helms


What are a lot of bodybuilders getting wrong these days? (Discussion: Ideal training frequency for bodybuilding)

Episode 8: Drug Testing, New Supplement Research, Squat Science, and Dr. Eric Helms


Is bodybuilding unhealthy? Should it be encouraged?

Episode 8: Drug Testing, New Supplement Research, Squat Science, and Dr. Eric Helms


What is the evidence for “effective reps”?

Episode 18: Effective Reps, Antioxidants, Optimal Training Volume, and Lauren Colenso-Semple


What lifts do you use for training vs. competition?

Episode 20: Reading Research, the Placebo Diet, Muscle Memory, and Alex Kolliari-Turner


What is the best approach for increasing strength endurance (that is, increasing maximum reps for a given exercise)?

Episode 23: Q&A: Carbs, Sodium, and Experimenting with Your Training


What is the relationship between training frequency and recoverable volume? Spreading work across more sessions seems as if it would allow more to be done, but is a minimum volume per session necessary to get sufficient stimulus?

Episode 23: Q&A: Carbs, Sodium, and Experimenting with Your Training


What are the best ways to improve speed using resistance training?

Episode 23: Q&A: Carbs, Sodium, and Experimenting with Your Training


How important is it for trainees to experiment with different training styles to see what methods may work best for them? How would you recommend organizing an experimental period of training to see if for example you respond better to speed or power training and what should be measured/benchmarked against?

Episode 23: Q&A: Carbs, Sodium, and Experimenting with Your Training


What things have contributed most to your success in powerlifting/bodybuilding?

Episode 5: Q&A: Dropping Weight, Building Strength to Promote Hypertrophy, and Training Around Pain


What glaring weaknesses would a typical powerlifter or bodybuilder have if they wanted to transition to strongman?

Episode 26: Protein, Fiber, Phototherapy, and Intro to Strongman with James Deffinbaugh


General Training Questions

Research Roundup: Modeling muscle growth, ankle mobility for squats, caffeine for women

Episode 64: Constrained Energy, Modeling Hypertrophy, and Effects of Aging on Performance


Is it possible to make “beginner gains” after years of training if you spent your first years of training with an ineffective approach to exercise and nutrition?

Episode 62: Energy Deficiency, Training Frequency, and Beginner Gains


Any thoughts about Pontzer’s “constrained energy model” and its implications for folks trying to use exercise to increase calorie burn?

Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans

Episode 62: Energy Deficiency, Training Frequency, and Beginner Gains


Research Review: Training Responders and Non-Responders

Studies reviewed: 1, 2

Episode 61: Responders, Non-Responders, and Fish Oil


Coach’s Corner: Vacation and time off from the gym

How to Make Gains Without a Gym

Episode 60: Capsaicin, Multivitamins, and Time Off


Research Roundup: Impact of COVID-19 on training behaviors

Study link
Episode 59: Beta-Alanine, Training Frequency, and Strength for Hypertrophy


What are the connections between flexibility and hypertrophy or strength training?

Episode 55: BMI, Plant-Based Protein, Stretching, and Mouthguards


Does neck strength influence concussion risk?

Relevant study

Episode 55: BMI, Plant-Based Protein, Stretching, and Mouthguards


Do you think that new lifters might be better off by initially avoiding an “evidence-based” approach to training and nutrition?

Episode 54: P-Ratios, Ischemic Preconditioning, and Q&A


Do “altitude masks” enhance training adaptations?  

Studies discussed: 1, 2, 3 

Episode 50: Q&A: Cortisol, Hydration, Anti-Nutrients, and Deadlift Recovery


Should people generally do minimalist, barbell-only warmups before their workouts? Are more extensive warmups a waste of time and energy?  

Episode 50: Q&A: Cortisol, Hydration, Anti-Nutrients, and Deadlift Recovery


Will blood tests for an avid lifter or natural bodybuilder reveal any expected abnormalities?  

Studies discussed: 1, 2, 3, 4 

Episode 50: Q&A: Cortisol, Hydration, Anti-Nutrients, and Deadlift Recovery


Acute effects of cannabis consumption on exercise performance: a systematic and umbrella review

Study Reviewed

Episode 47 – Bench Angles, Appetitive Traits, and Mesocycle Progression


Does being younger (16-19 years old) affect strength negatively?

Episode 46: Season Finale: Tons of New Meta-Analyses and Q&A Catch-Up


Categorizing lifters as “beginner,” “intermediate,” and beyond.

Episode 46: Season Finale: Tons of New Meta-Analyses and Q&A Catch-Up


Greg reviews several recent meta-analyses and systematic reviews

Episode 46: Season Finale: Tons of New Meta-Analyses and Q&A Catch-Up


If I was born with poor lifting genes, yet continued to perform resistance exercises out of passion, and then give birth to a child who inherited my poor genes, who also performed resistance exercise…how many generations of children would be needed before a noticeable difference in lifting-specific genes was present?

Episode 35: Metabolic Rate, Artificial Sweeteners, Electromyography, and Non-Failure Training


Do you have any evidence based suggestions for a female who is looking to maintain muscle and gain strength without inducing further hypertrophy?

Episode 34: Cell Swelling, Genetic Ceilings, Touch-and-Go Deadlifts, and Load-Specific Adaptations


What are your thoughts on touch-and-go deadlifts versus resetting every rep?

Episode 34: Cell Swelling, Genetic Ceilings, Touch-and-Go Deadlifts, and Load-Specific Adaptations


What is the best way to achieve/plan for lifting goals going into the new year?

Episode 33: Doping, Collagen, Goals, and Hyperplasia


Coach’s Corner: Changing health-related habits and behaviors

Episode 32: Year in Review, Effective Reps and Antioxidants Revisited, Behavior Change, and Mike Tuchscherer


What is physical culture? (With Ben Pollack)

Episode 28: Glycogen Loading, Lower Back Pain, PowerBuilding, & Physical Culture with Ben Pollack


Why pursue physical culture as an academic pursuit? Why is it important? (With Ben Pollack)

Episode 28: Glycogen Loading, Lower Back Pain, PowerBuilding, & Physical Culture with Ben Pollack


What are the roots of physical culture in the West? What are some major physical culture traditions elsewhere that people may not be aware of? (With Ben Pollack)

Episode 28: Glycogen Loading, Lower Back Pain, PowerBuilding, & Physical Culture with Ben Pollack


How have opinions on strength training changed over time? How has media portrayal of strength training changed over time? (With Ben Pollack)

Episode 28: Glycogen Loading, Lower Back Pain, PowerBuilding, & Physical Culture with Ben Pollack


“The Other Eric” (Helms) doesn’t appear to lift his chin all the way to the bar when doing pull-ups. For strength and hypertrophy goals, is it important to do so?

Episode 27: Q&A: Bands, Chains, Useful Supplements, and Tweaking Your Program


Is completely eschewing the deadlift and all deadlift variations acceptable from a bodybuilding standpoint? If so, can you name a couple of accomplished bodybuilders who have reached their level without incorporating deadlifts into their training? To what extent can I make up for deadlift gains with a bunch of other exercises targeting the posterior chain, forearms, and upper traps?

Episode 25: Q&A: Rest Periods, Deadlifts, Bulking, and Hypertrophy for Powerlifters


I’ve noticed that as my lifts have gotten stronger, my rest periods are becoming longer. What’s the mechanism behind that?

Episode 25: Q&A: Rest Periods, Deadlifts, Bulking, and Hypertrophy for Powerlifters


What does the literature say about rest time between sets for maximizing hypertrophy versus maximizing strength? Is it possible to take too much or little?

Episode 25: Q&A: Rest Periods, Deadlifts, Bulking, and Hypertrophy for Powerlifters


How does chronological age affect potential training status? Do you limit your potential by starting to lift later in life?

Episode 21: Q&A: BCAAs, Mini-Cuts, Sex Differences, and First Meet Tips


What’s the best and most accurate way to track daily energy expenditure? Are Fitbits the best option?

Episode 15: Q&A: Keto, Rapid Fat Loss, Deadlifts, and Faulty Movement Patterns


I’ve been lifting for many years, but I’m still far from my “genetic potential,” according to an online calculator. Am I advanced or intermediate?

Episode 11: Q&A: Lifting Shoes, Alcohol, and Over/Underrated Exercises


What are the chronic effects of resistance training on hormone levels?

Episode 11: Q&A: Lifting Shoes, Alcohol, and Over/Underrated Exercises


Do connective tissues display a delayed response to resistance training? If so, what does Greg know about it?

Episode 9: Q&A: Hormonal Contraceptives, Rates of Weight Loss/Weight Gain, Timeline of Training Adaptations


When we do resistance exercise, how long does it take for hypertrophy to manifest?

Episode 9: Q&A: Hormonal Contraceptives, Rates of Weight Loss/Weight Gain, Timeline of Training Adaptations


Do you know how intra-abdominal pressure is measured?

Episode 9: Q&A: Hormonal Contraceptives, Rates of Weight Loss/Weight Gain, Timeline of Training Adaptations


I’ve read that having a lower body fat percentage is more conducive to building muscle/strength. Is there truth to this, or is the change in body function/hormones negligible between high and low body fat percentage?

Episode 7: Q&A: CBD, Junk Volume, Eccentric Training, and Building a Following in Fitness


How possible is it that eccentric overload causes preferential hypertrophy of titin, meaning that people who only perform conventional training get a percentage of the available gains? What study designs/tools (blood markers, biopsies) would you use to test? If true, what kind of difference do you feel it would amount to?

Episode 7: Q&A: CBD, Junk Volume, Eccentric Training, and Building a Following in Fitness


At what point do you see diminished returns when it comes to the health benefits of getting stronger?

Episode 3: Q&A: Beltless Training, Leucine, and the Health Benefits of Strength


How do your genes, and even just knowing about your genes, affect your performance and physiology?

Episode 1: Creatine, Genetics, and Dr. Peter Fitschen


Which makes a bigger difference: your actual genes, or your perception of your genetic predisposition? Is direct-to-consumer genetic testing a good idea for determining your athletic potential?

Episode 1: Creatine, Genetics, and Dr. Peter Fitschen


How variable are responses to resistance training (strength, hypertrophy)?

Episode 14: Sleep, Response Heterogeneity, and Dr. Brandon Roberts


How do you find a strongman gym? How can you train for strongman if there’s not a strongman gym nearby? How do you find competitions in your area?

Episode 26: Protein, Fiber, Phototherapy, and Intro to Strongman with James Deffinbaugh


Coaching

Coach’s Corner: Sticking Points

Episode 56: Testosterone Boosters, Sticking Points, and Bar Velocity Technology


Coach’s Corner

Episode 55: BMI, Plant-Based Protein, Stretching, and Mouthguards


How do you go about helping athletes find the best technique for themselves? (with Mike Tuchscherer)

Episode 32: Year in Review, Effective Reps and Antioxidants Revisited, Behavior Change, and Mike Tuchscherer


Since you’ve coached so many world-class lifters, what are signs a lifter is nearing their ultimate limits? What do you think ultimately limits progress? (with Mike Tuchscherer)

Episode 32: Year in Review, Effective Reps and Antioxidants Revisited, Behavior Change, and Mike Tuchscherer


How do you help clients that struggle with motivation, emotional decision-making, or taking responsibility for their decisions?

Episode 9: Q&A: Hormonal Contraceptives, Rates of Weight Loss/Weight Gain, Timeline of Training Adaptations


Can you improve your lifting technique by overexaggerating cues?

Episode 10: Coaching Cues, Fat-Free Mass Index, Non-Responders, and Dr. Brad Dieter


What are some mistakes that coaches make when working with beginners?

Episode 12: Bench Press, Intermittent Fasting, Body Composition Testing, and Dr. Grant Tinsley


Belts, Shoes, and Lifting Gear

Research Review: Technologies for measuring bar velocity

Study reviewed

Episode 56: Testosterone Boosters, Sticking Points, and Bar Velocity Technology


Do mouthguards impact performance?

Relevant studies: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

Episode 55: BMI, Plant-Based Protein, Stretching, and Mouthguards


Lifting belts

Episode 46: Season Finale: Tons of New Meta-Analyses and Q&A Catch-Up


What is your take on using chains or bands, specifically when the goal is hypertrophy?

Episode 31: Q&A: Myonuclei, Sodium Bicarbonate, Bands For Hypertrophy, and More Game Changers


Hot Off The Press (Research Roundup) – Greg’s knee sleeve hypothesis.

Studies referenced: 1, 2.

Episode 30: Fructose, Knee Sleeves, Weight Loss Variability, and James Krieger


What are the benefits of using weightlifting shoes (with an elevated heel) for squat and leg press?

Episode 11: Q&A: Lifting Shoes, Alcohol, and Over/Underrated Exercises


Which is better: 10mm or 13mm belt?

Episode 9: Q&A: Hormonal Contraceptives, Rates of Weight Loss/Weight Gain, Timeline of Training Adaptations


For an advanced lifter, is beltless training useless?

Episode 3: Q&A: Beltless Training, Leucine, and the Health Benefits of Strength


Sex Differences

Much of sport science studies are conducted on young males. Are there any studies/areas in particular that we have reasons to think female physiology would give different results? 

Episode 66: Refeeds, Diet Breaks, Fructose, and Sodium


Most research uses men as a sample population. Do you think that the findings apply to women in equal measure?

Episode 21: Q&A: BCAAs, Mini-Cuts, Sex Differences, and First Meet Tips


How do birth control and menstrual cycle hormones affect periodization? Should I program with that in mind?

Episode 9: Q&A: Hormonal Contraceptives, Rates of Weight Loss/Weight Gain, Timeline of Training Adaptations


Do men and women experience the same performance effects from caffeine?

Episode 6: Caffeine and Health, Sex-Based Caffeine Differences, and IPF World Champion Natalie Hanson


What is the gap between male research and female research in exercise science?

Episode 6: Caffeine and Health, Sex-Based Caffeine Differences, and IPF World Champion Natalie Hanson


What are some unique challenges or social pressures that women experience in strength sports?

Episode 6: Caffeine and Health, Sex-Based Caffeine Differences, and IPF World Champion Natalie Hanson


What are some steps that people can take to help shift attitudes and help women feel more comfortable in strength sports and other fitness communities?

Episode 6: Caffeine and Health, Sex-Based Caffeine Differences, and IPF World Champion Natalie Hanson


What did Greg uncover doing his master’s research on sex differences in fatigue and recovery?

Episode 2: Sex Differences in Fatigue and Recovery, and Dr. Jason Cholewa


Concurrent Training and Cardio

What do Greg and Eric’s cardio routines look like? Have they ever competed in endurance sports?

Episode 62: Energy Deficiency, Training Frequency, and Beginner Gains


Can you HIIT yourself into marathon shape?

Episode 59: Beta-Alanine, Training Frequency, and Strength for Hypertrophy


What are some indicators that one needs extra conditioning for strength and hypertrophy?

Episode 57: Caffeinated Naps, Intuitive Eating, and Q&A Catch-Up


Penalty: Reduction in Gains for Interference (with Mike Zourdos)  

Episode 51: 2020’s Most Notable Research (with guests Eric Helms and Mike Zourdos)


Research Roundup – Adaptations to strength training differ between endurance-trained and untrained women

Study reviewed: Vikmoen et al

Episode 44: Caffeine Genes, Brown Adipose Tissue, Concurrent Training, and Hangovers


Advice for reducing the interference effect for recreational lifters?

Episode 37: Heart Rate Variability, Antagonist Stretching, and Chrononutrition


Can your aerobic fitness level hinder your progress in a strength training program?

Episode 31: Q&A: Myonuclei, Sodium Bicarbonate, Bands For Hypertrophy, and More Game Changers


What are the best ways to do concurrent training (i.e., combining cardio with resistance training)?

Study discussed: 1

Episode 17: Q&A: Dreamer Bulks, Concurrent Training, Recovery Modalities, and Valuing Research


Muscle Physiology

Are there types of muscles that are resistant to hypertrophy?

Episode 57: Caffeinated Naps, Intuitive Eating, and Q&A Catch-Up


Research Roundup – Biological factors that may limit muscle fiber growth

Episode 53: Protein, Fish Oil, Glycogen, and What Limits Muscle Growth


Research Roundup – Modest Glycogen Depletion May Impact Lifting Performance More Than You Think

Article discussed

Episode 53: Protein, Fish Oil, Glycogen, and What Limits Muscle Growth


Research Roundup – Muscle Memory

Article discussed

Episode 52: Protein, Lactate, and Strength Phases to Boost Hypertrophy


Research Roundup – Lactate

Episode 52: Protein, Lactate, and Strength Phases to Boost Hypertrophy


The Evidence for Myonuclear Muscle Memory May be Murkier Than Commonly Believed  

Episode 51: 2020’s Most Notable Research (with guests Eric Helms and Mike Zourdos)


When we talk about CNS fatigue, what are we actually talking about mechanistically? Is there anything we can specifically do to improve CNS recovery? 

Episode 49: Protein & Kidney Function; Cholesterol & Training Adaptations


Applications and limitations of EMG research (with Jeff Nippard)

Interview with Jeff Nippard: On genetic limits, FFMI, training, and nutrition


Do you need to worry about your muscle fiber type when it comes to power and rate of force development? From a training perspective, what can be done to improve power and rate of force development? (1:10:31).

Episode 37: Heart Rate Variability, Antagonist Stretching, and Chrononutrition


Does mouthwash affect blood pressure and muscle pumps by altering nitric oxide production?

Episode 36: Antioxidants, Injury Risk Factors, and the Conjugate Method


Research Review about factors influencing muscle protein synthesis

The effect of sleep restriction, with or without high‐intensity interval exercise, on myofibrillar protein synthesis in healthy young men.

Episode 36: Antioxidants, Injury Risk Factors, and the Conjugate Method


Questions about EMG, stemming from the recent Barbalho study.

Study link

Episode 35: Metabolic Rate, Artificial Sweeteners, Electromyography, and Non-Failure Training


Resistance Exercise-induced Changes in Muscle Phenotype Are Load Dependent.

Episode 34: Cell Swelling, Genetic Ceilings, Touch-and-Go Deadlifts, and Load-Specific Adaptations


Passive muscle tension increases in proportion to intramuscular fluid volume.

Episode 34: Cell Swelling, Genetic Ceilings, Touch-and-Go Deadlifts, and Load-Specific Adaptations


Is anyone looking into how we can increase our overall potential for muscle growth by boosting hyperplasia?

Episode 33: Doping, Collagen, Goals, and Hyperplasia


What is Greg’s take on the current state of the literature regarding the myonuclear domain theory and hypertrophy? Has he updated his position or recommendations since he published his “Grow Like a Newbie” article back in 2015?

Episode 31: Q&A: Myonuclei, Sodium Bicarbonate, Bands For Hypertrophy, and More Game Changers


Is it possible to speculate that the diminished return from ‘training too hard’ can partly be explained by the magnitude of muscle protein breakdown exceeding the maximum magnitude of muscle protein synthesis that your body can stimulate in a single training session?

Episode 29: Q&A: High Protein Diets, Hardgainers, Exercise Variety, and Bone Adaptations


How do you feel about recent opinion papers suggesting that the change in muscle size over a training career is virtually unrelated to changes in strength? (With Ben Pollack)

Episode 28: Glycogen Loading, Lower Back Pain, PowerBuilding, and Physical Culture with Ben Pollack


Research Roundup – Phototherapy

Episode 28: Glycogen Loading, Lower Back Pain, PowerBuilding, and Physical Culture with Ben Pollack


Research Roundup – Muscle Glycogen Replenishment

Episode 28: Glycogen Loading, Lower Back Pain, PowerBuilding, and Physical Culture with Ben Pollack


Why are satellite cells and myonuclei important for muscle physiology?

Episode 20: Reading Research, the Placebo Diet, Muscle Memory, and Alex Kolliari-Turner


Why do so many studies measure satellite cells instead of myonuclei?

Episode 20: Reading Research, the Placebo Diet, Muscle Memory, and Alex Kolliari-Turner


What is muscle memory?

Episode 20: Reading Research, the Placebo Diet, Muscle Memory, and Alex Kolliari-Turner


To what degree is satellite cell activation predictive of the accumulation of myonuclei? What are the mechanisms that contribute to myonuclear accretion? Are there important physiological roles of satellite cells that do not become activated?

Episode 20: Reading Research, the Placebo Diet, Muscle Memory, and Alex Kolliari-Turner


Why do muscles eventually stop growing?

Episode 20: Reading Research, the Placebo Diet, Muscle Memory, and Alex Kolliari-Turner


What are the implications of the recent news about histone lactylation linking metabolism and gene regulation?

Episode 26: Protein, Fiber, Phototherapy, and Intro to Strongman with James Deffinbaugh


What are the effects of phototherapy on exercise performance and recovery from exercise?

Episode 26: Protein, Fiber, Phototherapy, and Intro to Strongman with James Deffinbaugh


Women’s Health

 

Does hypothalamic amenorrhea impact hypertrophy? If eating at maintenance (or in a caloric surplus), does hypothalamic amenorrhea still have a negative impact on hypertrophy and athletic performance?

Episode 46: Season Finale: Tons of New Meta-Analyses and Q&A Catch-Up


Pelvic health (incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, pelvic floor dysfunction, and more) with Marika Hart and Molly Galbraith

Episode 43: Pelvic Health, Lifting During and After Pregnancy, and More with Marika Hart and Molly Galbraith


Unbelievable prevalence statistics related to pelvic health in female athletes (with Marika Hart and Molly Galbraith)

Episode 43: Pelvic Health, Lifting During and After Pregnancy, and More with Marika Hart and Molly Galbraith


Lifting and pregnancy: First trimester (with Marika Hart and Molly Galbraith)

Episode 43: Pelvic Health, Lifting During and After Pregnancy, and More with Marika Hart and Molly Galbraith


Lifting and pregnancy: Second trimester (with Marika Hart and Molly Galbraith)

Episode 43: Pelvic Health, Lifting During and After Pregnancy, and More with Marika Hart and Molly Galbraith


Lifting and pregnancy: Third trimester (with Marika Hart and Molly Galbraith)

Episode 43: Pelvic Health, Lifting During and After Pregnancy, and More with Marika Hart and Molly Galbraith


Lifting and pregnancy: After childbirth (with Marika Hart and Molly Galbraith)

Episode 43: Pelvic Health, Lifting During and After Pregnancy, and More with Marika Hart and Molly Galbraith


Other “blind spots” that male coaches should know about (with Marika Hart and Molly Galbraith)

Episode 43: Pelvic Health, Lifting During and After Pregnancy, and More with Marika Hart and Molly Galbraith


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